04 July, 2013

Mohamed Morsi: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mohamed Morsi: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Morsi" redirects here. For the American writer, see
Mohamed Morsi
محمد مرسى

5th President of Egypt
In office
30 June 2012 – 3 July 2013
Prime Minister Kamal Ganzouri
Hesham Qandil
Vice President Mahmoud Mekki
Preceded by Mohamed Hussein Tantawi(Acting)
Succeeded by Adly Mansour (Acting)
Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement
In office
30 June 2012 – 2 August 2012
Preceded by Mohamed Hussein Tantawi
Succeeded by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Chairman of the Freedom and Justice Party
In office
30 April 2011 – 24 June 2012
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Saad El-Katatni
Member of the People's Assembly of Egypt
In office
1 December 2000 – 12 December 2005
Preceded by Numan Gumaa
Succeeded by Mahmoud Abaza
Personal details
Born 8 August 1951 (age 61)
Sharqia, Egypt
Political party Freedom and Justice Party
Other political
affiliations Muslim Brotherhood
Spouse(s) Naglaa Mahmoud (1979–present)
Children 5
Alma mater Cairo University
University of Southern California
Religion Sunni Islam

Mohamed Morsi[note 1] (Arabic: محمد محمد مرسى عيسى العياط‎, ALA-LC: Muḥammad Muḥammad Mursī ‘Īsá al-‘Ayyāṭ IPA: [mæˈħæmmæd mæˈħæmmæd ˈmoɾsi ˈʕiːsæ (ʔe)l.ʕɑjˈjɑːtˤ]; born 8 August 1951) is an Egyptian politician who served as the fifth President of Egypt, having assumed office on 30 June 2012. He was declared unseated on 3 July 2013 by the Egyptian defense minister Abdul Fatah Khalil Al-Sisi in the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état following protests and opposition calls calling for his resignation.

Mohamed Morsi was educated in Egyptian public schools and universities; he was later granted a scholarship from the Egyptian Government to prepare for a PhD degree in the United States. Morsi was a Member of Parliament in the People's Assembly of Egypt from 2000 to 2005, and a leading member in the Muslim Brotherhood. He became Chairman of theFreedom and Justice Party (FJP) when it was founded by the Muslim Brotherhood in the wake of the2011 Egyptian revolution. He stood as the FJP's candidate for the May–June 2012 presidential election.

On 24 June 2012, the election commission announced that Morsi won Egypt's presidential election, making him the first democratically elected president of Egypt.[1][2][3] He had runoff against Ahmed Shafik, the last prime minister under deposed leader Hosni Mubarak.[4] According to official results, Morsi took 51.7 percent of the vote while Shafik received 48.3 percent.[5] As he had promised during his campaign, Morsi resigned from his position as the head of the FJP after his victory was announced.[6]

After Morsi temporarily granted himself unlimited powers to "protect" the nation in late November 2012,[7][8] and the power to legislate without judicial oversight or review of his acts, hundreds of thousands of protesters began demonstrating against him in the2012 Egyptian protests.[9][10] On 8 December 2012, Morsi annulled his decree which had expanded his presidential authority and removed judicial review of his decrees, an Islamist official said, but added that the effects of that declaration would stand.[11] George Isaac of the Constitution Party said that Morsi’s declaration did not offer anything new, the National Salvation Front rejected it as an attempt to save face, and the 6 April Movement and Gamal Fahmi of the Egyptian Journalists Syndicate said the new declaration failed to address the "fundamental" problem of the nature of the assembly that was tasked with drafting the constitution.[11]

On 30 June 2013, mass protests erupted across Egypt calling for the President's resignation. This was followed by the army's threat that if the protesters' demands were not met by 3 July it would step in and build a road map for the country, while insisting that it did not want to rule the country.[12] Some took this to mean a military coup, but the next day the army denied that they were referring to a possible military coup.[13] The plan set up by the military includes suspending the constitution, dissolving the parliament, and establishing a new administration headed by the chief justice.[14]

Morsi was declared unseated on 3 July 2013 by a council consisting of defence minister Abdul Fatah Khalil Al-Sisi, Mohamed ElBaradei, the Grand Imam of Al Azhar Ahmed el-Tayeb, and Coptic Pope Tawadros II.[15][16]

Early life and education

Morsi was born in the Sharqia Governorate, in northern Egypt, of modest provincial origin, in the village of El-Adwah, north of Cairo, on 8 August 1951.[17] His father was a farmer and his mother a housewife.[17] He is the eldest of five brothers, and told journalists that he remembers being taken to school on the back of a donkey.[18] He earned a bachelor's and master's degree in engineering fromCairo University in 1975 and 1978, respectively. He then earned his Ph.D. in materials science from the University of Southern California in the U.S. in 1982 with his dissertation High-Temperature Electrical Conductivity and Defect Structure of Donor-Doped Al2O3.[19][20] He was an Assistant Professor at California State University, Northridge, from 1982 to 1985. In 1985, he returned to Egypt and began to serve as the head of the engineering department at Zagazig University, where he was a professor until 2010.

The National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan (NUST) conferred the honorary degree of Doctor of Philosophy on Morsi at a special convocation, held at the School of Civil & Environmental Engineering NUST in Islamabad on 18 March 2013. The degree was awarded in recognition of his achievements and significant contribution toward the promotion of peace and harmony in the world and for strengthening bilateral relations with other Muslim countries, especially Pakistan.[21] Prime Minister Raja Pervez Ashraf, as Chancellor of the University, conferred the degree on the Egyptian President together with the Rector of NUST, Muhammad Asghar.
Political career

Morsi was first elected to parliament in 2000.[22] He served as a Member of Parliament from 2000 to 2005, officially as an independent candidate because the Brotherhood was technically barred from running candidates for office under Mubarak.[23] He was a member of the Guidance Office of the Muslim Brotherhood until the founding of the Freedom and Justice Party in 2011, at which point he was elected by the MB's Guidance Office to be the first president of the new party.[citation needed]While serving in this capacity in 2010, Morsi stated that "the two-state solution is nothing but a delusion concocted by the brutal usurper of the Palestinian lands."[24]

Morsi made several controversial comments about the September 11 attacks that have drawn occasional criticism in the United States,[25] including stating that it is "insulting" to suggest that damage from an aircraft collision brought down the World Trade Center,[26] that no evidence has been presented that could identify the Al-Qaeda terrorists who were recorded on video as they boarded the planes they would fly into the World Trade Center towers, and that in order to address questions surrounding the events a "huge scientific conference" should be held to determine the real culprits.[27]
2011 Political prisoner

Morsi was arrested along with 24 other Muslim Brotherhood leaders on 28 January 2011.[28] He was released from prison two days later. The break of Wadi el-Natroun Prison received widespread news coverage within hours of its occurrence. On 30 January 2011, EST, news were reported from Cairo as follows:
6:12 a.m. – Reuters reported: Thirty-four members of the opposition Muslim Brotherhood, including seven members of the leadership, walked out of prison on Sunday after relatives of prisoners overcame the guards.[29]
12:29 a.m. – The Guardian reported: Armed gangs took advantage of the chaos in Cairo and other cities to free the prisoners, starting fires and engaging prison guards in gun battles, officials said. Several inmates were reportedly killed during the fighting and some were recaptured.[30]
12:35 a.m. – Twitter: Also reports of new prison break at Wadi Natrun #Egypt 5000 escapees. Still confirming but had 2 similar reports. Prison guards fled #Jan 25[31]
1:13 p.m. – Los Angeles Times reported: Egypt: Muslim Brotherhood members escape prison, rally in Tahrir Square.[32]
14:04 p.m. – Israel News reported: Former minister reportedly evacuated from Interior Ministry building under heavy fire. Thousands of criminals, political prisoners flee local jails, join uprising against President Mubarak across country. Report: Dozens of bodies found near Cairo prison.[33]
Morsi's initial telephone call on behalf of freed prisoners

From Morsi’s first contact with Al Jazeera at the moment of his release and before his decision to depart prison premises, the call reports:
هروب مساجين من سجن وادي النطرون من بينهم محمد مرسي
"unknown people broke into the prison after chaos erupted outside the prison in the middle of the night which required four hours of effort by the helpers to break into ward number 3 in prison number 2, where 34 Muslim Brothers were locked up."

The 30 January 2011 historic call: Mohamed Morsi, a member of the Muslim Brothers, telephonedAl Jazeera to announce to state authorities that he and 34 of his prison inmates were released from the prison by a group of approximately 100 unknown people and that the prison guards and officials were nowhere to be found. Morsi described the situation of the released prisoners, identified the exact location of the prison and asked the host of Aljazeera to help them find the state official who could help them with their next move. Morsi shouted: we will not flee, we are present here and need someone to tell us what to do. He described their location as: Prison at Alexandria-Cairo desert highway, kilo[metre] 97, close to the town of Sadat. He described himself and his associates as: Mohammad Morsi, Esam ElAryan, Mohamed Saad AlKatatny, Mahmoud Abu Zead, Mustafi Al-Goneamy, Saad Al-Husseiny, Zayed Nuzeally, Dr. Ahmed Abdul Rahman, Maged Al-Zummer, Hassan abu Sheaashaa, Ali Izz, Morsi described their exact location as follows: The walls of the prison face the desert highway, named Wadi Al Natroun Prison. We were in ward number 3, prison 2, prison 2, ward 3, prison Wadi Al Natroun, kilo 97, north west Cairo, approximately 100 kilos.During the call, he went on to add more details: We do not know at all the people who broke in, some dressed in civil clothes, some in prison clothes, more than 100, did every thing to let us out, took more than 4 hours. We heard explosions of gas canisters fired by the guards outside, as the chaos ensued and the prison authority tried to restore order outside, we did not know what was happening, we did not see any injuries, we did not hear cries. After we exited at 12 O’clock, today, there was no one but us and the people who tried to let us out, are now in front of the gate of prison 2, negotiating what to do next.
2012 Egyptian presidential campaign
Main article: Egyptian presidential election, 2012

After Khairat El-Shater was disqualified from the 2012 presidential election, Morsi, who was initially nominated as a backup candidate, emerged as the new Muslim Brotherhood candidate.[34] His campaign was supported by well-known Egyptian cleric Safwat Hegazi at a rally in El-Mahalla El-Kubra,[35] the epicentre of Egyptian worker protests.[36]

Following the first round of Egypt's first post-Mubarak presidential elections where exit polls suggested a 25.5 percent share of the vote for Morsi, he was officially announced as the president on 24 June 2012 following a subsequent run-off vote. Morsi supporters in Cairo's Tahrir Squarecelebrated, and angry outbursts occurred at the Egypt Election Authorities press conference when the result was announced. He came in slightly ahead of former Mubarak-era prime minister Ahmed Shafik and has been noted for the Islamist character of his campaign events.[37] Since the initial round of voting on 23 May and 24 May 2012, Morsi has attempted to appeal to political liberals and minorities while portraying his rival Ahmed Shafik as a holdover from the Mubarak-era of secular moderation.[38]

On 30 May 2012, Morsi filed a lawsuit against Egyptian television presenter Tawfiq Okasha, accusing him of "intentional falsehoods and accusations that amount to defamation and slander". According to online newspaper Egypt Independent, an English-language subsidiary of Egyptian dailyAl-Masry Al-Youm, Okasha spent three hours on 27 May 2012 criticizing the Muslim Brotherhood and Morsi on air.[39] After Okasha aired a video allegedly depicting Tunisian Islamist extremists executing a Christian while asking "how will such people govern?", some analysts suggested that this was in reference to Morsi's Muslim Brotherhood party.[40] The Tunisian government characterized the video as a farce in a harshly worded statement.[41]

On 24 June 2012, Morsi was announced as the winner of the election with 51.73 percent of the vote.[42] Almost immediately afterward, he resigned from the presidency of the Freedom and Justice Party.[43]
President of Egypt
See also: Timeline of the 2011–2012 Egyptian revolution under the Muslim Brotherhood

Morsi was sworn in on 30 June 2012, as Egypt's first democratically elected president.[44] He succeeded Hosni Mubarak, who left the office of the President of Egypt vacant after being forced to resign on 11 February 2011.[45][46]
Domestic policy

According to Foreign Policy, the initial effect of a Morsi presidency on domestic policy was hazy, as Egypt's bureaucracy remained stocked with Mubarak loyalists and could block any changes that Morsi might try to push through. In a television interview with Yosri Fouda, he stated that his preference was an interim period with a mixed presidential-parliamentary system, which would pave the way for a system in which the legislature held complete sway.[47] Morsi reconvened Parliament in its original form on 10 July 2012; this was expected to cause friction between him and the military officials who dissolved the legislature.

Morsi sought to influence the drafting of a new constitution of Egypt. Morsi favored a constitution that protects civil rights, yet that enshrined Islamic law.[48]

In a speech to supporters in Cairo's Tahrir Square on 30 June 2012, Morsi briefly mentioned that he would work to free Omar Abdel-Rahman, convicted in the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Centerin New York City, along with the many Egyptians who were arrested during the revolution.[49] A Brotherhood spokesperson later said that the extradition was for humanitarian reasons and that Morsi did not intend to overturn Abdel-Rahman's criminal convictions.[50]

On 10 July 2012, Morsi reinstated the Islamist-dominated parliament that was disbanded by theSupreme Constitutional Court of Egypt on 14 June 2012. According to Egypt’s official news agency, Morsi ordered the immediate return of legislators elected in 2011, a majority of whom are members of Morsi’s Freedom and Justice Party and other Islamist groups.[51][52] A Morsi spokesman announced that the president-elect would appoint a Christian and a woman as vice-presidents,[53]but eventually appointed Mahmoud Mekki, a Muslim. On 22 December 2012, Mekki resigned.[54]

After Kamal Ganzouri's resignation, Morsi tasked Hesham Qandil with forming the new government.[55] On 2 August 2012, Qandil was sworn in as Prime Minister.[56] Morsi also objected to a constitutional provision limiting presidential power.[57]

On 12 August 2012, Morsi asked Mohamad Hussein Tantawi, head of the country's armed forces, and Sami Hafez Anan, the Army chief of staff, to resign.[58] He also announced that the constitutional amendments passed by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) restricting the president's powers would be annulled.[59] Morsi's spokesman, Yasser Ali, announced that both Tantawi and Anan would remain advisers to the president. Morsi named Abdul Fattah el-Sisi, currently serving as chief of military intelligence, as Egypt's new defense minister.[60] The New York Times described the move as an "upheaval" and a "stunning purge", given the power that SCAF had taken after the fall of Mubarak.[60] Al Jazeera described it as "escalating the power struggle" between the president and military.[59] On 14 August 2012, Mohamed Salem, an Egyptian lawyer, filed a legal challenge over Morsi's removal of Tantawi and Anan, arguing that Morsi planned to bring back the totalitarian regime.[61]

Morsi fired two more high-rank security officials on 16 August 2012: intelligence chief Murad Muwafithe and the commander of his presidential guards.[62]

On 27 August 2012, Morsi named 21 advisers and aides that included three women and two Christians and a large number of Islamist-leaning figures.[63] He also appointed new governors to the 27 regions of the country.[64]

On 19 October 2012, Morsi traveled to Egypt's northwestern Matrouh in his first official visit to deliver a speech on Egyptian unity at el-Tenaim Mosque. Immediately prior to his speech he participated in prayers there where he openly mouthed "Amen" as cleric Futouh Abd Al-Nabi Mansour, the local head of religious endowment, declared, "Deal with the Jews and their supporters. Oh Allah, disperse them, rend them asunder. Oh Allah, demonstrate Your might and greatness upon them. Show us Your omnipotence, oh Lord." The prayers were broadcast on Egyptian state television and translated by MEMRI. Originally MEMRI translated the broadcast as "Destroy the Jews and their supporters. Oh Allah, disperse them, rend them asunder," but later revised their translation.[65][66]

Morsi did not attend the enthronement of Coptic Pope Tawadros II on 18 November 2012 at Abbasiya Cathedral, though Prime Minister Hesham Qandil did attend.[67]
November 2012 declaration
Main article: 2012–13 Egyptian protests

On 22 November 2012, Morsi issued a declaration purporting to protect the work of the Constituent Assembly drafting the new constitution from judicial interference. In effect, this declaration immunises his actions from any legal challenge. The decree states that it only applies until a new constitution is ratified.[68] The declaration also requires a retrial of those accused in the Mubarak-era killings of protesters, who had been acquitted, and extends the mandate of the Constituent Assembly by two months. Additionally, the declaration authorizes Morsi to take any measures necessary to protect the revolution. Liberal and secular groups walked out of the constitutional Constituent Assembly because they believed that it would impose strict Islamic practices, while members of the Muslim Brotherhood supported Morsi.[69]

The move was criticized by Mohamed ElBaradei who said Morsi had "usurped all state powers and appointed himself Egypt's new pharaoh."[70][71] The move led to massive protests and violent action throughout Egypt,[72] with protesters erecting tents in Tahrir Square, the site of the protests that preceded the resignation of Hosni Mubarak. The protesters demanded a reversal of the declaration and the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly. Those gathered in the square called for a "huge protest" on 27 November.[73] Clashes were reported between protesters and police.[74] The declaration was also condemned by human rights groups such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and Freedom House.[75][76][77][78] Egypt's highest body of judges decried the ruling as an "unprecedented assault on the independence of the judiciary and its rulings."[79] Abdel Meguid Mahmoud, a prosecutor appointed by Hosni Mubarak, declared the decree "null and void."[68] Morsi further emphasized his argument that the decree is temporary, and said he wanted dialog with the opposition.[80] Morsi's statement failed to appease either the judges or citizenry dissatisfied with his decision and sparked days of protests in Tahrir Square.[81]

Though the declarations's language had not been altered, Morsi agreed to limit the scope of the decree to "sovereign matters" following four days of opposition protests and the resignation of several senior advisers. Morsi's spokesman said an agreement, reached with top judicial authorities, would leave most of the president's actions subject to review by the courts, but preserve his power to protect the Constituent Assembly from being dissolved by the courts before it had finished its work. President Morsi also agreed there would be no further retrials of former officials under Hosni Mubarak, unless new evidence was presented.[82]

On 1 December 2012, the Constituent Assembly handed the draft constitution to Morsi, who announced that a constitutional referendum would be held on 15 December 2012.[83][84]

On 4 December 2012, Morsi left his presidential palace after a number of protesters broke through police cordons around the palace, with some climbing atop an armored police vehicle and waving flags.[85]

On 8 December 2012, Morsi annulled his decree which had expanded his presidential authority and removed judicial review of his decrees, an Islamist official said, but added that the effects of that declaration would stand.[11][84][86][87][88][89] A constitutional referendum was still planned for 15 December. George Isaac of the Constitution Party said that Mursi’s declaration did not offer anything new, the National Salvation Front rejected it as an attempt save face, and the 6 April Movement and Gamal Fahmi of the Egyptian Journalists Syndicate said the new declaration failed to address the "fundamental" problem of the nature of the Assembly that was tasked with drafting the constitution.[11]
2013 Egyptian protests and dismissal declaration
Main article: 2013 Egyptian coup d'état

On 30 June 2013, massive demonstrations were held across Egypt calling for President Morsi's resignation from office[90]. Concurrently with these anti-Morsi demonstrations, his supporters held demonstrations elsewhere in Cairo.[91]

On 1 July, the Egyptian Armed Forces issued a 48-hour ultimatum which gave the country's political parties until 3 July to meet the demands of the Egyptian people. The Egyptian military also threatened to intervene if the dispute was not resolved by then.[92] Four Ministers also resigned on the same day, including tourism minister Hisham Zazou, communication and IT minister Atef Helmi, state minister for legal and parliamentary affairs Hatem Bagato and state minister for environmental affairs Khaled Abdel Aal[93], leaving the government with members of the Muslim Brotherhood only.

On 2 July, President Morsi publicly rejected the Egyptian Army's 48-hour ultimatum and vowed to pursue his own plans for national reconciliation and resolving the political crisis.[94]

On 3 July at 21:00 (GMT+2), Abdul Fattah el-Sisi announced a road map for the future, stating that Morsi was removed and that the head of the Constitutional Court had been appointed the Interim President of Egypt. [95]
Foreign policy

Mohamed Morsi meets withU.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in Cairo, Egypt, July 2012
Arab world

His first official foreign visit was to Saudi Arabia on 11 July 2012.[96] During this visit, Morsi stated that he intends to strengthen ties with the oil-rich monarchy, which also maintained close ties with the Mubarak government.[97]

Morsi has seen strong support from Qatar which has maintained long-held ties with the Muslim Brotherhood,[98] of which Morsi was a member until his election. Qatar has declared that it would provide Egypt with US$2 billion just as Morsi announced the reshuffle in the cabinet on 12 August 2012.[99] Meanwhile investors from Qatar have pledged to invest 10 billion in Egyptian infrastructure.[98]

As a staunch supporter of the opposition forces in the Syrian civil war, Morsi attended an Islamist rally on 15 June 2013, where salafi clerics called for "holy war" in Syria and denounced supporters of Bashar al-Assad as "infidels".[100] Morsi, who announced at the rally that his government had expelled Syria's ambassador and closed the Syrian embassy in Cairo, called for international intervention on behalf of the opposition forces in the effect of an establishment of a no-fly zone.[101]

Although he did not explicitly call for Egyptians to join the opposition armed forces in the Syrian conflict, President Morsi's attendance at the 15 June rally was seen by many to be a implicit nod-of-approval for the Islamist clerics' calls for holy war in Syria.[102][100] Morsi was criticized by Egyptian analysts for attending and speaking at the rally, while the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces(SCAF) released a statement the day after the rally saying that its only role is to protect Egypt's borders, in an apparent ruling out of support for intervention in Syria.[100] Morsi's attendance at the rally was later revealed to be major factor in the largely secular SCAF's decision to side with anti-Morsi protesters over the Morsi government during the widespread July 2013 anti-Morsi protests.[100]

Morsi visited China in August 2012. He signed various cooperation agreements during his visit.[103]Morsi was believed to be trying to attract Chinese investors and tourists,[103] and diversifying Egypt's foreign policies currently focused on the United States.[104]

During his tenure, Morsi strengthened ties with Iran following pre-revolutionary years of animosity between the two countries. However, his actions were met with Sunni Muslim opposition both inside and outside Egypt.[105]

Morsi visited Russia in April 2013. During the visit Morsi hailed the ties that bound Egypt and Russia since Soviet times and he said that he would like to strengthen both economic and political ties with Russia. Morsi also hoped for Russian assistance in developing the Egyptian energy sector. [106]

Morsi also wanted Russia to help build nuclear power plants in Egypt and to attract Russian tourists and investors as he is hoping to diversify Egypt's foreign and economic policies which are still linked to the U.S.[107]
Israel and Palestine

In October 2012, Morsi wrote a friendly letter to Israeli President Shimon Peres. The letter largely followed standard diplomatic language. Morsi called Peres "a great and good friend" and went on to call for "maintaining and strengthening the cordial relations which so happily exist between our two countries." Morsi closed the letter by expressing "highest esteem and consideration." Gamal Muhammad Heshmat asserted that the letter was "fabricated" saying that "Zionist media have leaked baseless statements by Morsi in the past." However, Morsi spokesman Yasser Ali told Egyptian state-run newspaper Ahram that the letter was "100 percent correct."[108] Previously, in July 2012, Morsi had refuted a fabricated letter.[109]

Morsi said in his victory speech that he would honor all of Egypt's international treaties, which was thought to be a reference to Egypt's treaty with Israel.[110]

On 14 November 2012, when Israel launched Operation Pillar of Defense in the Gaza Strip in response to Hamas rocket fire, Morsi's government condemned the operation and called for a halt to airstrikes.[111] Morsi sent Prime Minister Hesham Qandil to Gaza to express solidarity with Gaza and Hamas,[112][113] a stark contrast to Hosni Mubarak's treatment of Hamas as an enemy in the 2008–9 Gaza War.[114] Egypt, along with the United States mediated the ceasefire with Hamas and Israel.[115]
Descendants of Apes and Pigs controversy

In January 2013, statements made by Morsi in 2010 gained wide attention in the Western media, following a report in Forbes magazine on 11 January that criticized big media outlets for having ignored it.[116] In videos posted by MEMRI, Morsi had declared "The Zionists have no right to the land of Palestine. There is no place for them on the land of Palestine. What they took before 1947-8 constitutes plunder, and what they are doing now is a continuation of this plundering. By no means do we recognize their Green Line. The land of Palestine belongs to the Palestinians, not to the Zionists."[117] In September 2010, calling the Israelis "blood-suckers", "warmongers" and "descendants of apes and pigs", Morsi said "These futile [Israeli-Palestinian] negotiations are a waste of time and opportunities. The Zionists buy time and gain more opportunities, as the Palestinians, the Arabs, and the Muslims lose time and opportunities, and they get nothing out of it. We can see how this dream has dissipated. This dream has always been an illusion... This [Palestinian] Authority was created by the Zionist and American enemies for the sole purpose of opposing the will of the Palestinian people and its interests."[118][119][120][121][122][123][124] White House spokesman Jay Carney tried to downplay Morsi's remarks, saying that U.S. policy is focused on actions, not words. Morsi later contended that his remarks were "taken out of context", and his exchange with a delegation headed by John McCain was made public:
Morsi told the delegation he was committed to freedom of religion and belief, his spokesman said, adding: "his Excellency [Morsi] pointed out the need to distinguish between the Jewish religion, and those who belong to it, and violent actions against defenseless Palestinians."[123][124]

During a visit to Germany in January 2013, Morsi again stated that his remarks were taken out of context, insisting that they were intended as a criticism of Israel's policies toward the Palestinians. Addressing reporters, Morsi stated that "[I am] not against the Jewish faith or the Jewish people. My comments were about conduct that sheds blood and kills innocent people – things neither I... nor anyone condones... My comments were about the conduct and manners, the killings and the aggression by tanks and warplanes and cluster bombs and internationally banned weapons against innocent people." Morsi also stated that "[I] cannot be against the Jewish faith or Jews or Christianity and Christians," pointing that the Quran requires Muslims "to believe in all religions."[125]
International summits
African Union

Morsi attended the African Union Summit in Addis Ababa from 15 to 16 July 2012; this was the first visit to Ethiopia by Egypt's president in 17 years since the attempted assassination of Hosni Mubarak in June 1995.[126]

Later, in June 2013, politicians called by Morsi were overheard suggesting attacking Ethiopia to stop it from building a dam on a Nile tributary.[127]
Non-Aligned Movement

Morsi attended the 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement in Tehran at the end of August 2012, in a visit that could resume normal relations for the countries. Their diplomatic relationship has been strained since Egypt signed a peace treaty with Israel in 1979.[128]

Morsi made a speech against the Syrian government and called on the Syrian opposition to unite during the Syrian civil war. His comments about Syria, however, were not covered by Iranian mediaclearly.[129] He sparked controversy saying that it is an "ethical duty" to support the Syrian people against the "oppressive regime" in Damascus.[130]
Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) summit

Morsi hosted the Islamic summit in Cairo with the presence of 57 Leaders of Muslim nations. The summit declared support for the unity and territorial integrity of Mali and condemned terrorism in the west African state but said nothing of French military intervention to drive out Islamist fighters. The summit called for a "serious dialogue" between Syria's government and an opposition coalition on a political transition to put an end to the devastating civil war.[131][132]

Morsi awarded Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu the Secretary-General of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), Order of the Nile, which is Egypt's highest state honor.[133]
Personal life

Morsi is married to his cousin, Naglaa Ali Mahmoud.[134] She reportedly stated that she does not want to be referred to "First Lady" but rather "First Servant [of the Egyptian public]."[135]

Morsi has five children:[136] Ahmed Mohammed Morsi, who is a physician in Saudi Arabia; Shaima, a graduate of Zagazig University; Osama, an attorney; Omar has a bachelor in commerce from Zagazig University; and Abdullah, high school student.[137] Two of Morsi's five children were born inCalifornia and are U.S. citizens by birth.[138] Morsi has three grandchildren.[137] His third son, Omar, was appointed to the Holding Company for Airports, a state-owned company, six months after his graduation.[139] However, he declined the job offer due to many rumors and attacks in the media and press.[140][141]
On his First State visit to Pakistan, Mohamed Morsi was awarded a Doctorate of Philosophy (PhD) by NUST in Islamabad, Pakistan on 18 March 2013 in recognition of his achievements and significant contributions towards promotion of peace and harmony in the world and strengthening of relations with the Muslim countries, especially Pakistan.[142][143]
See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:Mohamed Morsi

Elections in Egypt
List of political parties in Egypt
Timeline of the 2011 Egyptian revolution under the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
Timeline of the 2011 Egyptian revolution under Mohamed Morsi (July–October 2012)

el-Natroun, Wadi, Wadi el-Natroun Prison located at the kilometer 97, on Alexandria-Cairo Highway, 100 kilometers North West of Cairo, Egypt. It is the state prison that hosted political prisoners among them were the 34 Muslim Brothers who escaped on 30 January 2011.
"How Morsi escaped... from the prison". All voices..
"Mohammed Morsi, Egypt’s new president, has many firsts – and 2 American children". Mcclatchydc.
Levs, Josh. "Egypt's new president: U.S.-educated Islamist". CNN. Retrieved 24 June 2012.


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