The Estimated Cost For The Raod Between Eragavo And Burao Based On Business Analytical Points Of Reference.
To begin with according to a question asked by many to Yahoo as when the first asphalt road was constructed. After concluding a voting exercise six years ago, the widely accepted response was that, the first asphalt pavement road was constructed in Babylon in 625 BC in the region of Reign (Babylon reached its heyday under the Babylonian king Hammurabi in 1792-1750 BC, who ruled all of southern Mesopotamia. The process involving of constructing asphalt road compromises the following and more information for the same is also detailed below.
2. Clearing and piling.
3. earth work
4. finish and grading
6. Drainage if necessary.
1. Surveying: is when building roads, bridges, and highways, construction surveying initially requires the use of computers, calculators, and other tools to establish the major factors of the land’s surface that will be involved in the upcoming construction. On a road being built on previously untouched land, for instance, a construction surveyor to determine how the land will need to be displaced in order to build the road in the way that it has been planned. Any element in the construction zone and its surrounding areas must be taken into account relative to the future road, such as trees, water, hills, and more. The surveyor must also prepare the people building the road for work involving the addition of drainage systems, sidewalks and other minor parts of the entire project.
2. Earthworks: are engineering works created through the moving or processing of parts of the earth’s surface involving quantities of soil or unformed . The earth may be moved to another location and formed into a desired shape for a purpose. Much of earthworks involve machine excavation and fill or back-fill.
3. Clearing and piling: land clearing is the removal and disposal of all vegetation, rubbish, and surface boulders embedded in the ground. In the TO, land clearing also includes the removal and disposal of mines, booby traps, and unexploded bombs. Grubbing is the uprooting and removal of roots and stumps. Stripping is the removal and disposal of unwanted topsoil and sod.
Clearing, grubbing, and stripping are accomplished by using heavy engineering equipment. Hand-or power-felling equipment, explosives, and fire are also used. Factors that determine which method to use are: the acreage to be cleared the type and density of vegetation, the terrain’s effect on the operation of equipment, the availability of equipment and personnel, and the time available for completion. For best results, a combination of methods is used in a sequence of operations.
Clearing, grubbing, and stripping are the same in road and airfield construction. In airfield construction, the areas to be cleared are usually larger than for road construction; the number of personnel and amount of equipment used are correspondingly greater; and the disposal of unsuitable materials requires more detailed planning and longer hauls.
4.Finishing and grading: A grader, also commonly referred to as a road grader, a blade, a maintainer, or a motor grader, is a construction machine with a long blade used to create a flat surface during the grading process. Typical models have three axles, with the engine and cab situated above the rear axles at one end of the vehicle and a third axle at the front end of the vehicle, with the blade in between.
5. Road surfacing: Road surface or pavement is the durable surface material laid down on an area intended to sustain vehicular or foot traffic, such as a road or walkway. In the past, gravel road surfaces, cobblestone and granite setts were extensively used, but these surfaces have mostly been replaced by asphalt or concrete. Road surfaces are frequently marked to guide traffic. Today, permeable paving methods are beginning to be used for low-impact roadways and walkways.
6. Drainage: Includes collecting, transporting, and disposing of surface/subsurface water originating on or near the roads right of way or flowing in streams crossing bordering that right of way. Drainage of roads is important because water damage the road structures.
The word asphalt road came from processing crude oil and the word asphalt originated from Greek word, which means secure. With regards the current of my concern, the cost of one kilometer road of asphalt pavement road depends from the country, which the road is constructed. However, the average cost in the third world countries ranges from US $ 200,000 to 300,000 the cost elements are the following:
1. Machinery and the equipments
2. Raw materials
5. miscellaneous(such as purchase equipments maintenance & unforeseen expenses, work such as construction of sub-base culverts and road-side drains)
According to research and inquiries conducted machines and equipments costs in mechanized forest road construction may easily amount to 70 to 80 percent of the total road costs, thus construction activities must be carefully planned so that the equipment is used as efficiently as possible and thus idle time of the machines is minimized. The skill of the forest engineer who does the road location and design is critical to the overall construction costs. Make Road construction costs may vary considerably depending mainly on the landscape and soil conditions, road standards, machine and labor costs, etc., as well as on the skill of operators and laborers involved. However, since road construction techniques are similar throughout the world, one can easily derive reasonable cost estimates once the main conditioning factors have been identified, by applying figures from similar road construction projects
In the event we award a road constructing contract and consider the cost of one kilometer asphalt road as US $ 200,000.00. However, had we procure the equipments/ and machinery, raw materials and own manpower, it is guaranteed that, the cost drops down in the average of 30 – 40 % per kilometer. Therefore, if the contractors’ cost is US 200,000, then cost after reduction becomes as US $ 70,000.00 per kilometer
Consequently if we consider the road as 375 kms which will begin from Ina Afmadoobe village east of Burao will connect the Lasaanod Burao, the average cost for the whole project shall be US $ 375 X 70,000 = 26,250,000.00 ( US $Twenty six million two hundred and fifty thousand), in other words less than US $ 30,000,000.00 (Less than thirty million). As a consequence, can Somali-land raise this budget collectively? The answer is twice yes due to the following factual factors. There are two types of capital money, direct money, which is the capital sourced from the gover4ment and the indirect capital, which can obtained from private sector considered to be much bigger volume wise to that obtained from government source.
The information detailed in the report based on correct business analysis. The key role in requirements development for the 21st century business will be that of business analyst. A good way to start defining the role of business analyst is as business problem-solver. (Read on to find out why that’s not sufficient, however.) To perform the role of business problem solver, business analysts must be generalists. They must be able to grapple with a problem in any of a number of dimensions, whether involving tactics, infrastructure, organization, information systems-or more likely, all of the above.
To be a business problem-solver, a business analyst also must be in touch with the reality of the “as is” business. Think of a business analyst as the person most likely to be able to tell you (or find out) how some aspect of the business really works-and what’s wrong with it. To put that a little more strongly, if they can’t tell you (or find out), then they are simply not doing their job. In conclusion in the event any party is not in agreement for the subject information, which is mentioned, the challenge should come from costing engineer or business analysis expert.
another general knowledge issue, which could be informative to many is that the vehicles per kilometer of road include cars, buses, and freight vehicles but do not include two-wheelers. Roads refer to motorways, highways, main or national roads, secondary or regional roads, and other roads. A motorway is a road specially designed and built for motor traffic that separates the traffic flowing in opposite directions. The countries which are the highest number of one kilometer road in 2010 as per the World Bank are Monaca, which is 574 cars, Kuwait, which is 318 cars and Singapore, which is 223 cars.
Ismail Lugweyne. Rabasoro55@hotmail.co.uk